Study on the material basis of blood-enriching effect of jujube


Red dates, also known as dates, are recorded in many Chinese medical classics."Matsutake truth" points out: "people jujube sweet taste, warm nature, in order to invigorate the spleen and stomach to medicine, can moisten the heart and lung, invigorate the five viscera, plump muscles, yue color, raw body fluid, treatment deficiency loss.Jujube gan can fill in, warm can benefit gas ".”In preparation of materia medica”, it is said to be able to "invigorate qi in the middle, nourish spleen soil, moisten heart and lung, adjust camp and guard, slow Yin blood, body fluid, yue color, connect nine orifuses, help twelve meridians, and hundred medicines".Clinically, it is commonly used to treat weakness of spleen and stomach, deficiency of qi and blood, disorder of camp and guard, palpitation, and antidrug toxicity.It is generally believed that jujube contains rich carbohydrate, vitamin A, B1, B2, C, P and alkaloid, flavonoids, also contains trace elements such as calcium, iron, selenium, manganese and A dozen kinds of amino acids are the material basis of its pharmacological effect function.Therefore, China's ministry of health has officially listed jujube as "both food and medicine".Red jujube can treat anaemia, make the blood composition such as the red blood cell of the animal, hemoglobin all has the increase of different level.Red jujube

Red jujube is the material basis of blood tonic

Red jujube polysaccharide

The blood-enriching function of jujube may be mainly due to the effect of polysaccharides in jujube on hematopoietic system and the result of promoting hematopoietic.At present, it is believed that the key of hematopoietic control lies in hematopoietic progenitor cells, especially the receptor of hematopoietic growth factor (HGF) appears on the membrane of the latter.Polysaccharides are active components in jujube to promote hematopoiesis, and their mechanism may be to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells indirectly by activating the hematopoietic regulatory system.Red jujube polysaccharide may be through the protection and improvement of the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, mature and play an important regulatory role of hematopoietic microenvironment, directly or indirectly induce and activate macrophages in the hematopoietic microenvironment, fibroblast cells, lymphocytes, etc., can also be indirect way to stimulate the skeletal muscle through the body, making them more active secretion of red blood hematopoiesis regulation factors, and hematopoiesis regulation factors regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, promote red blood.

Jujube has obvious immune-stimulating activity.

Pharmacology and clinical experiments show that polysperms are immunomodulators that can activate immune cells and improve the immune function of the body.Most plant polysaccharides have anti-complement activity and promote interleukin (IL) production.Most of the active anticomplement polysaccharides are acidic heterosaccharides, and the acidic parts are mainly galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid.Linqinbao et al. extracted polysaccharides from jujube and obtained jujube neutral polysaccharides JDP-N and acid polysaccharides JDP-A.The uronic acid of jujube acid polysaccharide was analyzed. The uronic acid was d-galacturonic acid, and the content was 40.6%.Pharmacology laboratory of the first military medical university determined that it had obvious anticomplement activity and promoted lymphocyte proliferation.The acid heteropolysaccharide of jujube polysaccharide is the intrinsic reason of its anticomplement activity.It is reported that jujube juice can increase the hemoglobin level and white blood cell count of mice, and increase the weight of thymus and spleen.

In conclusion, jujube polysaccharide may induce hematopoietic growth factor-like substances in hematopoietic stromal cells and spleen cells, promote the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, and promote the adhesion of stromal cells, contributing to the interaction between stromal cells and hematopoietic cells.blood

cAMP and cGMP

Studies have shown that plasma level of 6 k-pge and a in patients with qi deficiency is decreased, cAMP level is also decreased, and cAMP/cGMP ratio is decreased.KHanabusa et al. reported that the content of cAMP in jujube was the highest among higher plants, more than 10 times that of avocado.CAMP and cGMP in jujube can increase the ratio of cAMP /GMP in white blood cells, which proves that jujube can replenish air.In addition, cAMP can prevent the formation of thrombin A in platelets, reduce platelet aggregation, and has an obvious antithrombotic effect.

Trace elements

Modern medicine believes that the symptoms of Yang deficiency and kidney deficiency are closely related to the inorganic elements in the body, such as iron, copper, selenium, zinc and cobalt.These few kinds of trace elements have the effect that maintains normal haematopoietic function and tissue mechanism, if be short of, can cause the symptom such as anaemia of different level and muscular dystrophy.Jujube can play the role of blood tonic and its rich trace and macro elements are inseparable, in jujube the human body essential trace elements, such as iron, manganese, zinc, aluminum, chromium content is very rich, especially the content of iron and manganese is higher.


Red blood cells are carriers of oxygen.Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin and is involved in the transport, exchange and tissue respiration of oxygen.At the same time, iron is an important inducible metal, which constitutes a regulatory system. In addition to regulating the balanced metabolism of iron itself, iron also participates in some processes of heme/hemoglobin synthesis, which affect the differentiation, proliferation, maturation and function of blood cells.Red dates are rich in iron, with an average of 2.4mg/g.At the same time, the reductive substances in jujube, such as vitamin C, glucose and fructose, cysteine, can reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the intestinal tract and promote the absorption of iron.In addition, copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese and other inorganic substances can increase the absorption of iron.


Manganese can stimulate erythropoietin and promote hematopoietic activity.Manganese is high in mitochondria, and hemoglobin synthesis has a special relationship with mitochondria.Element manganese can replace bivalent iron in hemoglobin, make hemoglobin combines oxygen ability to weaken, cause tissue anoxia, feedback produces erythropoietin, stimulate hemopoietic.It was found that manganese promoted the increase of mRNA levels of EPD in cells.There have also been reports of decreased manganese in anemia patients.The average content of manganese in jujube is 25.34 mu /g.


Cuprin can affect the absorption, transport and utilization of iron, maintain the normal metabolism of iron, facilitate the synthesis of hemoglobin and the maturation of red blood cells, and participate in the hematopoietic process.Copper is the cobase of cupro-blue protein, and plasma cupro-blue protein is related to tissue transformation of ferritin. When copper is deficient, cupro-blue protein oxidase activity is reduced, iron absorption, oxidation and transportation are blocked, bone marrow cannot get enough iron, hemoglobin and porphyrin synthesis is blocked, red blood cell brittleness increases, survival time becomes short and anemia is formed.The average content of copper in jujube is 2.56ug/g.


Mediterranean anemia, sickle-cell anemia and other diseases are increased when the body is deficient in zinc due to increased catabolism, poor absorption of zinc, excessive excretion and loss of zinc.The average zinc content in jujube is 24.56 mu /g.


Selenium can significantly increase the yield of CFU-GM in bone marrow.The mechanism of action has not been clarified.The average selenium content in jujube was 0.134 mug /g, which was higher than the selenium content of 290 kinds of fruits listed in the food ingredient list. Compared with several hot spots of wild fruits, the selenium content of jujube was also outstanding.


Jujube contains A lot of vitamin C, P, A, E and other nutrients.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C can form a soluble chelate with iron, and it can also be dissolved at high pH of iron, which can obviously promote the absorption of non-heme iron.VC can reduce the hard-to-absorb ferric iron in the intestinal tract to easily absorb ferric iron and increase the uptake of iron in the body.VC can also reduce the concentration of methemoglobin.Therefore, vitamin C is beneficial to iron absorption.Folic acid also is the vitamin that participates in haematopoietic, VC can make folic acid changes after the tetrahydrofolic acid that has physiology activity, folic acid can play a role.Therefore,VC is an important active substance in the blood tonic of jujube.And the vitamin C content in red jujube is extremely high, than the so-called "king of vitamins" kiwi is also 3-4 times higher.

Vitamin A

VA is necessary for the formation of red blood cells and is related to the disorder of iron metabolism. It can improve the absorption of iron and the distribution of iron in the body and promote the hematopoietic function.A severe lack of VA has been reported to cause abnormalities in DNA metabolism and protein synthesis, which can lead to dysplasia of blood cells, which can lead to anemia.VA causes anemia by affecting the release of iron stored in liver and spleen into peripheral blood and the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes.The content of VA in jujube can reach 3.6ug /g.

Vitamin B2

Powers et al. reported that vitamin B2 deficiency was associated with anemia in animals.Recent studies have found that when VB2 is lacking in vivo, Fe absorption, transport and storage of Fe in liver and spleen are blocked.Jujube contains a large amount of vitamin B2, iron and vitamin B2 synergistic effect, blood tonic effect is better than pure iron.

Vitamin P

The content of vitamin P in jujube is the first among all fruits, above 33mg/g.Think lemon is the representative that vitamin P content is rich commonly, but compare with fresh jujube, inferior however 10 times.Studies have shown that flavonoids compounds can significantly increase the number of peripheral blood leukocytes and colony stimulating factor (CSF) in serum. The type of CSF is m-csf and other hematopoietic factors, thus promoting bone marrow hematopoietic.

A large number of experiments have shown that flavonoids, VC and other active components in jujube can remove free radicals and have antioxidant effects, which can also prevent blood clots and platelet clumps, and also play a certain role in blood supplementation.

To sum up, the blood-enriching effect of jujube is the result of the comprehensive action of jujube polysaccharide, CAMP and cGMP, a large number of inorganic salts and vitamins.

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