Progress and prospect of modern research and development of jujube


Jujube, rat lee branch plants of the genus jujube jujube . The fruits of the earliest recorded in the "fifty-two diseases party", in the cold-induced febride listed as top grade, past many herbal medicine are expounded, its flavour GanPing, temperature, reduction, spleen, stomach, filling of replenishing qi and nourishing blood nerves, and because of their help. The best medicine, so it belongs to the high frequency in the TCM clinical sent the clinical use of commonly used Chinese traditional medicine.

China is the country with the most abundant jujube resources. There are 704 species of jujube with complex chemical components and more than 90 kinds of components.It has a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as regulating immunity, anti-tumor and anti-oxidation, repairing liver damage and anti-fatigue, and improving hematopoietic function and intestinal movement.In recent years, it has been widely studied and used, and has developed more than 120 kinds of medicine, health care products and food.Red jujube

Research status of jujube resources

China is the country with the most abundant jujube resources in the world, with an area of 460 000 km2 of jujube trees and an annual output of about 80 thousand tons of jujube. At the same time, China exports nearly 8 000 tons of jujube annually, making China the only jujube exporter in the world.

At present, China's jujube variety resources are mainly located in hebei, shanxi, jiangsu and other jujube variety resources, there are nearly 100 jujube variety preservation.Jujube resources in China have unique advantages of production and cultivation, huge development space and objective economic benefits.

There are four varieties of jujube in the literature, which are longxu jujube, calabash jujube, no thorn jujube and jujube jujube.According to yao wenhua et al., the above four varieties are suitable to be identified as variants according to their characteristics. According to the obvious and stable variation characteristics of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit, they are divided into six variants, namely, longzao, changelod, changelod, calabash, jujube jujube and seedless jujube.

Research progress on chemical constituents of jujube

Plant jujube is rich in chemical formation. Since the 1980s, more than 90 kinds of chemical compounds have been found in jujube.In recent years, studies on the chemical constituents of jujube have focused on alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, organic acids and glycosides.

Alkaloid compounds

There are rich varieties of alkaloids in jujube, and many new alkaloids have been found one after another, most of which are interstitium with A 13nary ring and antistitium with A 14nary ring.Among them: aechualkaloid-a, AdouetineX and Daechucyelopride I in leaves; DaechuineS3, Daechuine S6, Mucronine D, Daechuine S10, Nummularine B, Frangufoline, Frangulanine, Daechuine s5 in root bark; Nummularine A and Jubanine in dry barkD, Jubanine A, Amiphibine H, Zizyphine A, Seutianine C, Jubanine C, Mauritine A, etc.

Study on the composition of red jujube


The content of flavonoids in jujube is not high. In addition to rutin, quercetin and acanthocerone, 5 new flavonoids compounds have been reported, which are :6, 8-di-c-glucose-2 (S) -naringin, 6, 8-di-c-glucose-2 (R) -naringin, acylatedflavuone-c-glycoside I, aeylatedlavuone-c glycoside II and aeylatedlavuone-c glycoside III.

Common soap compounds

Saponins in jujube are mainly distributed in the leaves, and the main structure is damarane triterpenoid saponins, including jujube saponins I, jujube saponins I, jujube saponins I, jujube saponins II, jujube saponins A, jujube saponins B, jujube saponins, etc.

Organic acids

Most of the organic acids in jujube belong to triterpenes, including lupine, oleanopane and ursulane.Organic acids and their esters have been isolated and identified, including 2-0- trans p-coumadinic acid, 3-0- trans p-coumadinic acid, 3-0- cis - coumadinic acid, 2-0- trans - coumadinic acid, 3-0- trans - coumadinic acid, etc.


Jujube is rich in saccharide, the content of sugar in fresh fruit is more than 40%, the content of sugar in dried fruit is 81.3%-88.7%.Jujube in the highest content of polysaccharides 01.Monosaccharide has glucose, fructose, sucrose, oligosaccharide by rhamnose, arabinose, ribose, mannose and galactose composition.


The content of coumarin in jujube is not high. In addition to scopolamine, 5 other coumarins have been reported recently, including zizyvoside-i, zizyvoside-ii, Roseoside and zizyvoside-i.

Neuramide-encephaloside lipids

Isolated from jujube identified two amide base brain lipid compounds, respectively (2 s, 3 s, 4 R, 8 e) - 2 - [(2 'R) - 2 - hydroxy alkyl amide] 24-8 - oleic - 1 and 4-3 and 1-0 - beta - D - glucose base - pyran (2 s, 3 s, 4 R, 8 e) - 2 - [(2' R) - 2 - hydroxy alkyl amide] 24-8 - oleic - 1 and 4 - three alcohol.

Other compounds

At present, the steroidal compounds [5] extracted from jujube are sitosterol, soysterol, 3 beta,6 beta soysterol-4-ene-3, 6-diol, carotenoside, etc.

The content of adenosine phosphate in jujube is rich, the content in fresh fruit is 63.7 nmolg', and the content in dry fruit is 50.01 nmolg', also contains a small amount of guanosine cyclophosphate.At the same time, jujube also contains uridine, guanyin nucleoside components.

Jujube is rich in vitamins, including vitamin C, vitamin E and other a, and contains a variety of mineral elements, including nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and a large number of mineral rope.

Jujube has a relatively rich protein content, and dried fruit has a protein content of 2.8% to 3.3%, including essential amino acids such as valine and methionine, and non-essential amino acids such as glutamate and aspartic acid.

Pharmacological effects of jujube

Advances in pharmacological action of jujube

Jujube has high medicinal value and has a long history of use, which is described in many treatises such as materia medica, treatise on typhoid and miscellaneous diseases, synopsis of golden chamber.It has been reported in recent years that jujube has a wide range of pharmacological activities, and has obvious pharmacological effects in enhancing immunity, anti-tumor and anti-oxidation, improving cardiovascular system, hematopoietic and other aspects.Effects on the immune system

Jujube in the high content of polysaccharides, can effectively improve the body immunity, immune enhancement effect is obvious.16 MGKG "oral 80% ethanol extract of jujube polysaccharide, mice spleen appeared around the central arteriole the lymphatic sheath thickened gradually, increase gradually enlarged spleen nodules of the edge of the area, similar changes in the splenic nodules, its internal lymphocytes, intrathecal lymphocytes increased gradually, intensive, thickening of the fringes, germinal center gradually clear.It shows that jujube can effectively promote the improvement of spleen cell structure and immune function in mice.Jujube polysaccharide can enhance the phagocytic function of peritoneal macrophages and the immune function of erythrocytes in mice, and has an obvious antagonistic effect on the immunosuppression caused by cyclophosphamide.Water-fried jujube can promote the secretion of respiratory mucosal immune molecule sIgA and enhance the mucosal immune function 1 ".The water extracted 100% jujube juice can inhibit the atrophy of thymus and spleen caused by radiotherapy in mice, the thymic cortex becomes thicker, the splenic nodules become larger, reduce the hematopoietic inhibition caused by radiation in rats, and promote the nuclear hyperplasia of bone marrow, which indicates that xinmao jujube has a protective effect on the immune function of mice after radiotherapy.

Antitumor effect

Different doses of jujube polysaccharide injection were injected into tumor-bearing BALB/e nude mice at a daily rate of GKG. It was found that jujube polysaccharide had a dose-dependent killing effect on s-180 tumor cells.Jujube polysaccharide has anti-tumor effect, and can cause apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and induce apoptosis of leukemia T cells.By MTT colorimetry, it was confirmed that jujube polysaccharide could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells.Analysis of DNA fragment showed that jujube extract could induce apoptosis of tumor cells.


Studies have found that water - extracted jujube polysaccharide antioxidant activity is strong.2 knife.The content of free radical in serum was determined by drinking water containing jujube polysaccharide.After scavenging 2,2' -hydrazine - (3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) diamine salt free radical in vitro, the compound of jujube polysaccharide and hawthorn extract was found to have a synergizing antioxidant effect.Adding jujube polysaccharide into the diet of weaned piglets can significantly increase the number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood of weaned piglets, meanwhile, the content of albumin, hemoglobin, etc., and the total antioxidant capacity is enhanced, so as to improve and enhance the antioxidant capacity of piglets.

Effects on the cardiovascular system

According to relevant reports, after normal mice and hyperlipidemia mice fed a high-fat diet were given water to extract 20% jujube juice, the blood lipid level was affected, and jujube juice had a significant improvement effect on the symptoms of hyperlipidemia mice.

Hematopoietic function

Jujube has significant activity of invigorating blood and vital energy. When the water extract was given to mice by gavage at a concentration of 0.02ml :g-', it could significantly improve the symptoms of the mice in the model of dual deficiency of qi and blood.Its mechanism is to increase the serum granule-macrophage colony stimulating factor, which can stimulate the immune response and promote the hematopoietic activity of bone marrow in mice with dual deficiency of qi and blood.

Jujube polysaccharide can improve energy metabolism in the body of rat model of double deficiency of qi and blood 36], which is also one of the main mechanisms for jujube polysaccharide to replenish blood and improve immune function.

Repair liver injury, anti - fatigue effect

It was found that jujube could protect mice from acute liver injury caused by paracetamol and CCl4, and also had a significant effect on fatigue.

Zhu tiger tiger to weight loading swimming experiment in mice, the results showed that xinjiang jujube water extract, 100% concentrations to fill the stomach, can reduce the movement of mice serum lactic acid and urea nitrogen content, increase liver glycogen content in mice, show that big jujube possible by reducing the production of lactic acid or accelerate elimination of lactic acid, increase the body's glycogen reserves to achieve the result of fatigue.Red jujube


Study found that jujube fermented liquid high GKG "(0.16) and low (0.04 GKG ') closed the dose groups of mice survival time of hypoxia, sodium nitrite poisoning in mice survival time of hypoxia were significantly higher than that of control group, high and low dose group and big jujube fermented liquid and hemoglobin content of mice was obviously higher than that of control group, that big jujube fermented liquid can extend the time of hypoxia tolerance in mice, increase the whole blood hemoglobin levels, has good resistance to hypoxia.

Improve intestinal function

Jujube polysaccharide can shorten the time of intestinal peristalsis, increase the content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum, decrease the activity of b-d-glucosidase, b-d-glucuronidase and mucinase, and inhibit the activity of urease in the stool.Jujube water-soluble polysaccharide, in appropriate dose, can reduce the intestinal mucosa exposure to harmful substances, so that the intestinal environment can be effectively improved.Tmina et al. found that jujube polysaccharide is safe and effective in clinical treatment of constipation.

Variety development of jujube

Domestic market big jujube related drugs, food, drink many, but different manufacturers qualification level, product quality is good and bad are intermingled, the following part of the food and beverage for domestic famous manufacturer production, and according to the state food and drug supervision and administration bureau website, China pharmaceutical products database, medicine database query contains jujube of medicine and health food.


Jujube has rich medicinal value, can eliminate fatigue, dilate blood vessels, can also increase myocardial contractility, improve myocardial status, has a good role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.In traditional Chinese medicine, jujube is believed to have the effects of invigorating the deficiency and qi, strengthening the spleen and stomach, nourishing the blood and calming the nerves, etc., and has obvious curative effect on the treatment of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, allergic purpura, anemia and other diseases.Currently listed in jujube varieties of traditional Chinese medicines as the main ingredients are: ginger, jujube remove cold particles, particles stilbene jujube, jujube ginseng agent, ten jujube pill, capsule, yellow dragon jujube jujube particles, qilu south films such as jujube, jujube oral liquid, angelica, moreover, 10 flavour of department of gynaecology piece, regulate the menstrual function of department of gynaecology piece, sedative for brain fluid, bezoar sedative bolus, complex fontaine cream, gastric abscess were the spirit pellet, four main god pill, clear heat honeysuckle syrup containing jujube varieties such as prescription.

Health care products, food and beverage

In the traditional records, jujube can be used as medicine and food. In recent years, the development and research of jujube health food is active. At present, there are more than 20 kinds of health food, most of which have the effect of enriching blood and qi.Jujube as the main raw materials of the food and drink is also a variety of food, including cereal, dessert, cakes, biscuits, and other 22 kinds of drinks, including soy milk, milk, flavored drinks, tea products and more than 35 kinds.




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